Indian Penal Code Part 1

The Indian Penal Code (IPC) is a comprehensive criminal code that applies to all citizens of India. It contains provisions related to a variety of crimes, including murder, theft, assault, fraud, and sedition. It is applicable within the territorial boundaries of India and also for offenses committed by Indians abroad. 

For example, according to the Indian Penal Code Section 82: “Nothing is an offence which is done by a child under the age of twelve years”. This means that any act committed by a 12 year old in India will not be viewed as a criminal offence under Indian law.

The Code of Criminal Procedure: (CrPC) is a substantive law that governs the criminal justice system in India. It contains provisions for the collection of evidence and enforcement of criminal laws. Specifically, it explains the procedure for prosecuting an offender, including arrest, examinations of witnesses, collection and analysis of evidence, and various other stages in between. The Code also includes provisions regarding how proceedings are to be conducted in a criminal court, such as setting up of a jury trial or laying out the rules for determination of bail and sentencing. The CrPC is an important part of the Indian Penal Code (IPC).

What is bail in indian penal code?
Bail is a way of securing the release of an accused person awaiting trial. In India, bail is granted under Section 437 and Section 439 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. According to these sections, a person accused or suspected of committing a non-bailable offence may be released on bail with or without furnishing security, depending on the gravity of the offence. The power to grant bail lies with the court. However, in certain cases, the police can also grant bail to an accused person.

Section 437 (CrPC) deals with the general provision on bail and states that any person accused of an offence punishable with imprisonment for a term which may be less than seven years or which may extend to seven years, but not including a case where the punishment for such an offence is death sentence or life imprisonment, shall be released on bail unless there appears reasonable grounds for believing that he has been guilty of an offence punishable with death or imprisonment for life. 

 Section 439 (CrPC) talks about power of High Court and Sessions Court to grant bail in certain cases. It states that the High Court or Sessions Court, as the case may be, may direct that any person accused of an offence and in custody be released on bail. Such direction can be made even if there is no provision in this Code for granting of such relief. It can also direct that a person accused of an offence punishable with imprisonment for life, should also be admitted to bail when it appears sufficient cause exists for doing so. 

 Nonbailable crimes in IPC 
The following are some of the non-bailable offences under the Indian Penal Code: 
 1. Criminal Conspiracy 
 2. Attempt to Murder 
 3. Abetment to Suicide 
 4. Kidnapping or Abduction 
 5. Rape or Gang Rape 
 6. Dacoity or Robbery 
 7. Extortion or Criminal Misappropriation of Property 
 8. Human Trafficking 
 9. Public Nuisance 
10. Offences against the State 
11. Offences relating to Documents and Currency Notes 
12. Counterfeiting Currency or Stamps


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